The rumen microbiome: balancing food security and environmental impacts

Itzhak Mizrahi* (Corresponding Author), R John Wallace, Sarah Moraïs

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Ruminants produce edible products and contribute to food security. They house a complex rumen microbial community that enables the host to digest their plant feed through microbial-mediated fermentation. However, the rumen microbiome is also responsible for the production of one of the most potent greenhouse gases, methane, and contributes about 18% of its total anthropogenic emissions. Conventional methods to lower methane production by ruminants have proved successful, but to a limited and often temporary extent. An increased understanding of the host-microbiome interactions has led to the development of new mitigation strategies. In this Review we describe the composition, ecology and metabolism of the rumen microbiome, and the impact on host physiology and the environment. We also discuss the most pertinent methane mitigation strategies that emerged to balance food security and environmental impacts.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)553–566
Number of pages14
JournalNature reviews. Microbiology
Volume19
Early online date12 May 2021
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2021

Keywords

  • Microbial ecology
  • Microbiome

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