The Triple Helix of University-Industry-Government Relations

Loet Leydesdorff, Martin S. Meyer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

148 Citations (Scopus)


The Triple Helix of university-industry-government relations provides a neo-evolutionary model of the process of innovation that is amenable to measurement. Economic exchange, intellectual organization, and geographical constraints can be considered as different dynamics that interact in a knowledge-based economy as a complex system. Differentiation spans the systems of innovation, while performative integration enables organizations to retain wealth from knowledge. Because of the systematic organization of interfaces among the subsystems under study, different perspectives can be expected in the reflection. Consequences for the heuristics, the research design, and normative implications are specified and the organization of the issue is further explained.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)191-203
Number of pages13
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2003


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