Using spatial patterns of fluvial incision to constrain continental-scale uplift in the Andes

L. A. Evenstar* (Corresponding Author), A. E. Mather, A. J. Hartley

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Geomorphic archives, particularly longitudinal river profiles, are increasingly used as a proxy to reconstruct uplift rates in mountainous regions. Within the Atacama Desert, Northern Chile, slow, long-term erosion creates exceptional preservation of fluvial and alluvial surfaces. This enables river incision patterns to be used on a continental-scale (>250 km) along the western margin of the Andes (18°00'S to 20°15′S) and over a time frame from Miocene to Present day. The data show marked compartmentalisation of fluvial system behaviour with changes in incision rates from south to north creating 3 distinctly different regions. Within these different sectors, incision rates are broadly consistent between rivers suggesting a regional rather than a river specific control on rates. In Sector 1 (18°05′S to 19°20'S) the fluvial systems are exorheic with a terminal base level (the lowest base level to which the river system can erode) in the Pacific Ocean and span the Coastal Cordillera, Longitudinal Valley, Precordillera and western edge of the Western Cordillera. This constrains the total uplift over these regions to a minimum of 1200 m in 11 Myr with incision rates of ~200–120 m/Myr consistent with rapid but sustained uplift of the Andes in the Late Miocene. In Sector 2 (19°20'S to 19°50'S), to the immediate south, the rivers are shorter and terminate in the Longitudinal Valley, spanning only the Longitudinal Valley, Precordillera and the western edge of the Western Cordillera with lower incision rates of 100–50 m/Myr. Comparison of incision rates between Sector 1 and 2 can constrain the uplift of the Coastal Cordillera to 60 m/Myr which is in keeping with previous studies from the region. In southernmost Sector 3 (19°50'S to 20°10'S), the fluvial systems terminate in the Longitudinal Valley and span only the Longitudinal Valley and eastern part of the Precordillera with low incision rates of 50 to 25 m/Myr. Differences between Sectors 2 and 3 are attributable to drainage loss by tectonic beheading of catchments through uplift of the Cordillera de Domeyko fault system, placing a minimum constrain on uplift in this region of 50 to 25 m/Myr. This study demonstrates the applicability of large-scale fluvial archives to access not just the timing of uplift on a continental scale, but also the relative uplift of individual tectonic provinces.
Original languageEnglish
Article number103119
JournalGlobal and Planetary Change
Volume186
Early online date11 Jan 2020
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 11 Jan 2020

Fingerprint

uplift
cordillera
valley
river
Miocene
tectonics
compartmentalization
rate
river system
desert
catchment
drainage
erosion
ocean

Keywords

  • Andes
  • paleosurface
  • Atacama
  • desert pavement
  • landscape evolution
  • base levels
  • climate
  • fluvial incision
  • fluvial archives
  • terraces
  • Climate
  • Base levels
  • Fluvial incision
  • Desert pavement
  • Fluvial archives
  • Terraces
  • Landscape evolution
  • Paleosurface

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oceanography
  • Global and Planetary Change

Cite this

Using spatial patterns of fluvial incision to constrain continental-scale uplift in the Andes. / Evenstar, L. A. (Corresponding Author); Mather, A. E.; Hartley, A. J.

In: Global and Planetary Change, Vol. 186, 103119, 03.2020.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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author = "Evenstar, {L. A.} and Mather, {A. E.} and Hartley, {A. J.}",
note = "This study was funded by BHP and the University of Brighton Rising Stars. The authors are grateful to Marit Van Zalinge and Masie Mather for discussions on the manuscript.",
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AU - Mather, A. E.

AU - Hartley, A. J.

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N2 - Geomorphic archives, particularly longitudinal river profiles, are increasingly used as a proxy to reconstruct uplift rates in mountainous regions. Within the Atacama Desert, Northern Chile, slow, long-term erosion creates exceptional preservation of fluvial and alluvial surfaces. This enables river incision patterns to be used on a continental-scale (>250 km) along the western margin of the Andes (18°00'S to 20°15′S) and over a time frame from Miocene to Present day. The data show marked compartmentalisation of fluvial system behaviour with changes in incision rates from south to north creating 3 distinctly different regions. Within these different sectors, incision rates are broadly consistent between rivers suggesting a regional rather than a river specific control on rates. In Sector 1 (18°05′S to 19°20'S) the fluvial systems are exorheic with a terminal base level (the lowest base level to which the river system can erode) in the Pacific Ocean and span the Coastal Cordillera, Longitudinal Valley, Precordillera and western edge of the Western Cordillera. This constrains the total uplift over these regions to a minimum of 1200 m in 11 Myr with incision rates of ~200–120 m/Myr consistent with rapid but sustained uplift of the Andes in the Late Miocene. In Sector 2 (19°20'S to 19°50'S), to the immediate south, the rivers are shorter and terminate in the Longitudinal Valley, spanning only the Longitudinal Valley, Precordillera and the western edge of the Western Cordillera with lower incision rates of 100–50 m/Myr. Comparison of incision rates between Sector 1 and 2 can constrain the uplift of the Coastal Cordillera to 60 m/Myr which is in keeping with previous studies from the region. In southernmost Sector 3 (19°50'S to 20°10'S), the fluvial systems terminate in the Longitudinal Valley and span only the Longitudinal Valley and eastern part of the Precordillera with low incision rates of 50 to 25 m/Myr. Differences between Sectors 2 and 3 are attributable to drainage loss by tectonic beheading of catchments through uplift of the Cordillera de Domeyko fault system, placing a minimum constrain on uplift in this region of 50 to 25 m/Myr. This study demonstrates the applicability of large-scale fluvial archives to access not just the timing of uplift on a continental scale, but also the relative uplift of individual tectonic provinces.

AB - Geomorphic archives, particularly longitudinal river profiles, are increasingly used as a proxy to reconstruct uplift rates in mountainous regions. Within the Atacama Desert, Northern Chile, slow, long-term erosion creates exceptional preservation of fluvial and alluvial surfaces. This enables river incision patterns to be used on a continental-scale (>250 km) along the western margin of the Andes (18°00'S to 20°15′S) and over a time frame from Miocene to Present day. The data show marked compartmentalisation of fluvial system behaviour with changes in incision rates from south to north creating 3 distinctly different regions. Within these different sectors, incision rates are broadly consistent between rivers suggesting a regional rather than a river specific control on rates. In Sector 1 (18°05′S to 19°20'S) the fluvial systems are exorheic with a terminal base level (the lowest base level to which the river system can erode) in the Pacific Ocean and span the Coastal Cordillera, Longitudinal Valley, Precordillera and western edge of the Western Cordillera. This constrains the total uplift over these regions to a minimum of 1200 m in 11 Myr with incision rates of ~200–120 m/Myr consistent with rapid but sustained uplift of the Andes in the Late Miocene. In Sector 2 (19°20'S to 19°50'S), to the immediate south, the rivers are shorter and terminate in the Longitudinal Valley, spanning only the Longitudinal Valley, Precordillera and the western edge of the Western Cordillera with lower incision rates of 100–50 m/Myr. Comparison of incision rates between Sector 1 and 2 can constrain the uplift of the Coastal Cordillera to 60 m/Myr which is in keeping with previous studies from the region. In southernmost Sector 3 (19°50'S to 20°10'S), the fluvial systems terminate in the Longitudinal Valley and span only the Longitudinal Valley and eastern part of the Precordillera with low incision rates of 50 to 25 m/Myr. Differences between Sectors 2 and 3 are attributable to drainage loss by tectonic beheading of catchments through uplift of the Cordillera de Domeyko fault system, placing a minimum constrain on uplift in this region of 50 to 25 m/Myr. This study demonstrates the applicability of large-scale fluvial archives to access not just the timing of uplift on a continental scale, but also the relative uplift of individual tectonic provinces.

KW - Andes

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KW - landscape evolution

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KW - climate

KW - fluvial incision

KW - fluvial archives

KW - terraces

KW - Climate

KW - Base levels

KW - Fluvial incision

KW - Desert pavement

KW - Fluvial archives

KW - Terraces

KW - Landscape evolution

KW - Paleosurface

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