Uveitis is underappreciated as a sight-threatening cause of blindness. There are two broad causative classes of uveitis: infectious and non-infectious. Non-infectious uveitis is considered a prototypical autoimmune disorder based mainly on data from experimental models in the mouse. Several different experimental models exist that reflect the different types of uveitis in man (anterior, intermediate, and posterior uveitis). These models have demonstrated that uveitis is predominantly a Th1/Th17 mediated disease, although innate immune cells play a significant role both in induction of disease and in tissue damage. Most experimental models of uveitis rely on activation of the innate immune system by use of adjuvants that activate a range of pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs). This begs the question of the underlying role of initial and/or persistent infection, including latent infection, in immune-mediated uveitis in which active infection cannot be demonstrated. This further raises the possibility of pathogenic mechanisms such as antigenic cross-reactivity and molecular mimicry. Alternatively, residual/latent antigen from infectious agents may act as “endogenous” adjuvants for induction of immune reactions to damaged/altered self antigen, suggesting a commonality in pathogenesis for both infectious and non-infectious uveitis in man.