What is treatment success in cardiac resynchronization therapy?

Paul W. X. Foley, Francisco Leyva, Michael P. Frenneaux

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

57 Citations (Scopus)


Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is an established treatment for symptomatic patients with heart failure, a prolonged QRS duration, and impaired left ventricular (LV) function. Identification of 'responders' and 'non-responders' to CRT has attracted considerable attention. The response to CRT can be measured in terms of symptomatic response or clinical outcome, or both. Alternatively, the response to CRT can be measured in terms of changes in surrogate measures of outcome, such as LV volumes, LV ejection fraction, invasive measures of cardiac performance, peak oxygen uptake, and neurohormones. This review explores whether these measures can be used in assessing the symptomatic and prognostic response to CRT. The role of these parameters to the management of individual patients is also discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)v58-v65
Number of pages8
Issue numberSuppl. 5
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2009


  • cardiac resynchronization therapy
  • mortality
  • responders
  • chronic heart-failure
  • brain natriuretic peptide
  • long-term survival
  • diastolic ventricular interaction
  • randomized controlled-trials
  • exercise oxygen-consumption
  • surrogate end-points
  • 6-minute walk test
  • care-HF trial
  • ischemic cardiomyopathy


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