Whole body and splanchnic amino acid metabolism in sheep during an acute endotoxin challenge

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Abstract

Supplemented protein or specific amino acids (AA) are proposed to help animals combat infection and inflammation. The current study investigates whole-body and splanchnic tissue metabolism in response to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge with or without a supplement of six AA (cysteine, glutamine, methionine, proline, serine and threonine). Eight sheep were surgically prepared with vascular catheters across the gut and liver. On two occasions, four sheep were infused through the jugular vein for 20 h with either saline or LPS from Escherichia coli (2 ng/kg body weight per min) in a random order, plus saline infused into the mesenteric vein; the other four sheep were treated with saline or LPS plus saline or six AA infused via the jugular vein into the mesenteric vein. Whole-body AA irreversible loss rate (ILR) and tissue protein metabolism were monitored by infusion of [ring-2H2]phenylalanine. LPS increased (P<0·001) ILR (+17 %), total plasma protein synthesis (+14 %) and lymphocyte protein synthesis (+386 %) but decreased albumin synthesis (-53 %, P=0·001), with no effect of AA infusion. Absorption of dietary AA was not reduced by LPS, except for glutamine. LPS increased the hepatic removal of leucine, lysine, glutamine and proline. Absolute hepatic extraction of supplemented AA increased, but, except for glutamine, this was less than the amount infused. This increased net appearance across the splanchnic bed restored arterial concentrations of five AA to, or above, values for the saline-infused period. Infusion of key AA does not appear to alter the acute period of endotoxaemic response, but it may have benefits for the chronic or recovery phases.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)211-222
Number of pages12
JournalBritish Journal of Nutrition
Volume116
Issue number2
Early online date18 May 2016
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2016

Fingerprint

Viscera
Endotoxins
Sheep
Amino Acids
Lipopolysaccharides
Glutamine
Mesenteric Veins
Jugular Veins
Proline
Liver
Vascular Access Devices
Proteins
Threonine
Phenylalanine
Leucine
Methionine
Serine
Lysine
Cysteine
Blood Proteins

Keywords

  • endotoxin lipopolysaccharide
  • amino acids
  • protein synthesis
  • splanchnic tissues
  • sheep

Cite this

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title = "Whole body and splanchnic amino acid metabolism in sheep during an acute endotoxin challenge",
abstract = "Supplemented protein or specific amino acids (AA) are proposed to help animals combat infection and inflammation. The current study investigates whole-body and splanchnic tissue metabolism in response to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge with or without a supplement of six AA (cysteine, glutamine, methionine, proline, serine and threonine). Eight sheep were surgically prepared with vascular catheters across the gut and liver. On two occasions, four sheep were infused through the jugular vein for 20 h with either saline or LPS from Escherichia coli (2 ng/kg body weight per min) in a random order, plus saline infused into the mesenteric vein; the other four sheep were treated with saline or LPS plus saline or six AA infused via the jugular vein into the mesenteric vein. Whole-body AA irreversible loss rate (ILR) and tissue protein metabolism were monitored by infusion of [ring-2H2]phenylalanine. LPS increased (P<0·001) ILR (+17 {\%}), total plasma protein synthesis (+14 {\%}) and lymphocyte protein synthesis (+386 {\%}) but decreased albumin synthesis (-53 {\%}, P=0·001), with no effect of AA infusion. Absorption of dietary AA was not reduced by LPS, except for glutamine. LPS increased the hepatic removal of leucine, lysine, glutamine and proline. Absolute hepatic extraction of supplemented AA increased, but, except for glutamine, this was less than the amount infused. This increased net appearance across the splanchnic bed restored arterial concentrations of five AA to, or above, values for the saline-infused period. Infusion of key AA does not appear to alter the acute period of endotoxaemic response, but it may have benefits for the chronic or recovery phases.",
keywords = "endotoxin lipopolysaccharide, amino acids, protein synthesis, splanchnic tissues, sheep",
author = "McNeil, {C. J.} and Hoskin, {S. O.} and Bremner, {D. M.} and G. Holtrop and Lobley, {G. E.}",
note = "Acknowledgements The expertise of A. Graham Calder and Susan Anderson for the various stable isotope analyses is gratefully recognised. Ngaire Dennison is also thanked for her surgical expertise with the trans-splanchnic tissue catheter preparations. This study was supported by funds provided to the Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health, University of Aberdeen and Biomathematics and Statistics Scotland by the Rural and Environment Science and Analytical Services Division of the Scottish Government. S. O. H. was a recipient of a FoRST (NZ) award to study abroad.",
year = "2016",
month = "7",
doi = "10.1017/S0007114516001860",
language = "English",
volume = "116",
pages = "211--222",
journal = "British Journal of Nutrition",
issn = "0007-1145",
publisher = "Cambridge Univ. Press.",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Whole body and splanchnic amino acid metabolism in sheep during an acute endotoxin challenge

AU - McNeil, C. J.

AU - Hoskin, S. O.

AU - Bremner, D. M.

AU - Holtrop, G.

AU - Lobley, G. E.

N1 - Acknowledgements The expertise of A. Graham Calder and Susan Anderson for the various stable isotope analyses is gratefully recognised. Ngaire Dennison is also thanked for her surgical expertise with the trans-splanchnic tissue catheter preparations. This study was supported by funds provided to the Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health, University of Aberdeen and Biomathematics and Statistics Scotland by the Rural and Environment Science and Analytical Services Division of the Scottish Government. S. O. H. was a recipient of a FoRST (NZ) award to study abroad.

PY - 2016/7

Y1 - 2016/7

N2 - Supplemented protein or specific amino acids (AA) are proposed to help animals combat infection and inflammation. The current study investigates whole-body and splanchnic tissue metabolism in response to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge with or without a supplement of six AA (cysteine, glutamine, methionine, proline, serine and threonine). Eight sheep were surgically prepared with vascular catheters across the gut and liver. On two occasions, four sheep were infused through the jugular vein for 20 h with either saline or LPS from Escherichia coli (2 ng/kg body weight per min) in a random order, plus saline infused into the mesenteric vein; the other four sheep were treated with saline or LPS plus saline or six AA infused via the jugular vein into the mesenteric vein. Whole-body AA irreversible loss rate (ILR) and tissue protein metabolism were monitored by infusion of [ring-2H2]phenylalanine. LPS increased (P<0·001) ILR (+17 %), total plasma protein synthesis (+14 %) and lymphocyte protein synthesis (+386 %) but decreased albumin synthesis (-53 %, P=0·001), with no effect of AA infusion. Absorption of dietary AA was not reduced by LPS, except for glutamine. LPS increased the hepatic removal of leucine, lysine, glutamine and proline. Absolute hepatic extraction of supplemented AA increased, but, except for glutamine, this was less than the amount infused. This increased net appearance across the splanchnic bed restored arterial concentrations of five AA to, or above, values for the saline-infused period. Infusion of key AA does not appear to alter the acute period of endotoxaemic response, but it may have benefits for the chronic or recovery phases.

AB - Supplemented protein or specific amino acids (AA) are proposed to help animals combat infection and inflammation. The current study investigates whole-body and splanchnic tissue metabolism in response to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge with or without a supplement of six AA (cysteine, glutamine, methionine, proline, serine and threonine). Eight sheep were surgically prepared with vascular catheters across the gut and liver. On two occasions, four sheep were infused through the jugular vein for 20 h with either saline or LPS from Escherichia coli (2 ng/kg body weight per min) in a random order, plus saline infused into the mesenteric vein; the other four sheep were treated with saline or LPS plus saline or six AA infused via the jugular vein into the mesenteric vein. Whole-body AA irreversible loss rate (ILR) and tissue protein metabolism were monitored by infusion of [ring-2H2]phenylalanine. LPS increased (P<0·001) ILR (+17 %), total plasma protein synthesis (+14 %) and lymphocyte protein synthesis (+386 %) but decreased albumin synthesis (-53 %, P=0·001), with no effect of AA infusion. Absorption of dietary AA was not reduced by LPS, except for glutamine. LPS increased the hepatic removal of leucine, lysine, glutamine and proline. Absolute hepatic extraction of supplemented AA increased, but, except for glutamine, this was less than the amount infused. This increased net appearance across the splanchnic bed restored arterial concentrations of five AA to, or above, values for the saline-infused period. Infusion of key AA does not appear to alter the acute period of endotoxaemic response, but it may have benefits for the chronic or recovery phases.

KW - endotoxin lipopolysaccharide

KW - amino acids

KW - protein synthesis

KW - splanchnic tissues

KW - sheep

U2 - 10.1017/S0007114516001860

DO - 10.1017/S0007114516001860

M3 - Article

VL - 116

SP - 211

EP - 222

JO - British Journal of Nutrition

JF - British Journal of Nutrition

SN - 0007-1145

IS - 2

ER -