Effect of increased consumption of whole-grain foods on blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk markers in healthy middle-aged persons

a randomized controlled trial

Paula Tighe, Garry G Duthie, Nicholas Vaughan, Julie Brittenden, William G Simpson, Susan J Duthie, William J Mutch, Klaus Wahle, Graham Horgan, Frank Thies (Corresponding Author)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

172 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Three daily portions of whole-grain foods could lower cardiovascular disease risk, but a comprehensive intervention trial was needed to confirm this recommendation.

Objectives: We aimed to assess the effects of consumption of 3 daily portions of whole-grain foods (provided as only wheat or a mixture of wheat and oats) on markers of cardiovascular disease risk in relatively high-risk individuals.

Design: This was a randomized controlled dietary trial in middle-aged healthy individuals. After a 4-wk run-in period with a refined diet, we randomly allocated volunteers to a control (refined diet), wheat, or wheat + oats group for 12 wk. The primary outcome was a reduction of cardiovascular disease risk factors by dietary intervention with whole grains, which included lipid and inflammatory marker concentrations, insulin sensitivity, and blood pressure.

Results: We recruited a total of 233 volunteers; 24 volunteers withdrew, and 3 volunteers were excluded. Systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure were significantly reduced by 6 and 3 mm Hg, respectively, in the whole-grain foods groups compared with the control group. Systemic markers of cardiovascular disease risk remained unchanged apart from cholesterol concentrations, which decreased slightly but significantly in the refined group.

Conclusions: Daily consumption of 3 portions of whole-grain foods can significantly reduce cardiovascular disease risk in middle-aged people mainly through blood pressure lowering mechanisms. The observed decrease in systolic blood pressure could decrease the incidence of coronary artery disease and stroke by >= 15% and 25%, respectively. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as ISRCTN27657880. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;92:733-40.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)733-740
Number of pages8
JournalThe American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume92
Issue number4
Early online date4 Aug 2010
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2010

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Randomized Controlled Trials
Blood Pressure
Food
Cardiovascular Diseases
Triticum
Volunteers
Diet
Whole Grains
Insulin Resistance
Coronary Artery Disease
Stroke
Cholesterol
Lipids
Control Groups
Incidence
Avena

Keywords

  • ischemic-heart-disease
  • dietary fiber intake
  • c-reactive protein
  • oat beta-glucan
  • hypercholesterolemic adults
  • insulin-resistance
  • women
  • metaanalysis
  • cholesterol
  • lipids
  • intervention study
  • blood pressure
  • CVD risk
  • whole grain

Cite this

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title = "Effect of increased consumption of whole-grain foods on blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk markers in healthy middle-aged persons: a randomized controlled trial",
abstract = "Background: Three daily portions of whole-grain foods could lower cardiovascular disease risk, but a comprehensive intervention trial was needed to confirm this recommendation.Objectives: We aimed to assess the effects of consumption of 3 daily portions of whole-grain foods (provided as only wheat or a mixture of wheat and oats) on markers of cardiovascular disease risk in relatively high-risk individuals.Design: This was a randomized controlled dietary trial in middle-aged healthy individuals. After a 4-wk run-in period with a refined diet, we randomly allocated volunteers to a control (refined diet), wheat, or wheat + oats group for 12 wk. The primary outcome was a reduction of cardiovascular disease risk factors by dietary intervention with whole grains, which included lipid and inflammatory marker concentrations, insulin sensitivity, and blood pressure.Results: We recruited a total of 233 volunteers; 24 volunteers withdrew, and 3 volunteers were excluded. Systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure were significantly reduced by 6 and 3 mm Hg, respectively, in the whole-grain foods groups compared with the control group. Systemic markers of cardiovascular disease risk remained unchanged apart from cholesterol concentrations, which decreased slightly but significantly in the refined group.Conclusions: Daily consumption of 3 portions of whole-grain foods can significantly reduce cardiovascular disease risk in middle-aged people mainly through blood pressure lowering mechanisms. The observed decrease in systolic blood pressure could decrease the incidence of coronary artery disease and stroke by >= 15{\%} and 25{\%}, respectively. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as ISRCTN27657880. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;92:733-40.",
keywords = "ischemic-heart-disease, dietary fiber intake, c-reactive protein, oat beta-glucan, hypercholesterolemic adults, insulin-resistance, women, metaanalysis, cholesterol, lipids, intervention study, blood pressure, CVD risk , whole grain",
author = "Paula Tighe and Duthie, {Garry G} and Nicholas Vaughan and Julie Brittenden and Simpson, {William G} and Duthie, {Susan J} and Mutch, {William J} and Klaus Wahle and Graham Horgan and Frank Thies",
year = "2010",
month = "10",
doi = "10.3945/ajcn.2010.29417",
language = "English",
volume = "92",
pages = "733--740",
journal = "The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition",
issn = "0002-9165",
publisher = "American Society for Nutrition",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Effect of increased consumption of whole-grain foods on blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk markers in healthy middle-aged persons

T2 - a randomized controlled trial

AU - Tighe, Paula

AU - Duthie, Garry G

AU - Vaughan, Nicholas

AU - Brittenden, Julie

AU - Simpson, William G

AU - Duthie, Susan J

AU - Mutch, William J

AU - Wahle, Klaus

AU - Horgan, Graham

AU - Thies, Frank

PY - 2010/10

Y1 - 2010/10

N2 - Background: Three daily portions of whole-grain foods could lower cardiovascular disease risk, but a comprehensive intervention trial was needed to confirm this recommendation.Objectives: We aimed to assess the effects of consumption of 3 daily portions of whole-grain foods (provided as only wheat or a mixture of wheat and oats) on markers of cardiovascular disease risk in relatively high-risk individuals.Design: This was a randomized controlled dietary trial in middle-aged healthy individuals. After a 4-wk run-in period with a refined diet, we randomly allocated volunteers to a control (refined diet), wheat, or wheat + oats group for 12 wk. The primary outcome was a reduction of cardiovascular disease risk factors by dietary intervention with whole grains, which included lipid and inflammatory marker concentrations, insulin sensitivity, and blood pressure.Results: We recruited a total of 233 volunteers; 24 volunteers withdrew, and 3 volunteers were excluded. Systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure were significantly reduced by 6 and 3 mm Hg, respectively, in the whole-grain foods groups compared with the control group. Systemic markers of cardiovascular disease risk remained unchanged apart from cholesterol concentrations, which decreased slightly but significantly in the refined group.Conclusions: Daily consumption of 3 portions of whole-grain foods can significantly reduce cardiovascular disease risk in middle-aged people mainly through blood pressure lowering mechanisms. The observed decrease in systolic blood pressure could decrease the incidence of coronary artery disease and stroke by >= 15% and 25%, respectively. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as ISRCTN27657880. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;92:733-40.

AB - Background: Three daily portions of whole-grain foods could lower cardiovascular disease risk, but a comprehensive intervention trial was needed to confirm this recommendation.Objectives: We aimed to assess the effects of consumption of 3 daily portions of whole-grain foods (provided as only wheat or a mixture of wheat and oats) on markers of cardiovascular disease risk in relatively high-risk individuals.Design: This was a randomized controlled dietary trial in middle-aged healthy individuals. After a 4-wk run-in period with a refined diet, we randomly allocated volunteers to a control (refined diet), wheat, or wheat + oats group for 12 wk. The primary outcome was a reduction of cardiovascular disease risk factors by dietary intervention with whole grains, which included lipid and inflammatory marker concentrations, insulin sensitivity, and blood pressure.Results: We recruited a total of 233 volunteers; 24 volunteers withdrew, and 3 volunteers were excluded. Systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure were significantly reduced by 6 and 3 mm Hg, respectively, in the whole-grain foods groups compared with the control group. Systemic markers of cardiovascular disease risk remained unchanged apart from cholesterol concentrations, which decreased slightly but significantly in the refined group.Conclusions: Daily consumption of 3 portions of whole-grain foods can significantly reduce cardiovascular disease risk in middle-aged people mainly through blood pressure lowering mechanisms. The observed decrease in systolic blood pressure could decrease the incidence of coronary artery disease and stroke by >= 15% and 25%, respectively. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as ISRCTN27657880. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;92:733-40.

KW - ischemic-heart-disease

KW - dietary fiber intake

KW - c-reactive protein

KW - oat beta-glucan

KW - hypercholesterolemic adults

KW - insulin-resistance

KW - women

KW - metaanalysis

KW - cholesterol

KW - lipids

KW - intervention study

KW - blood pressure

KW - CVD risk

KW - whole grain

U2 - 10.3945/ajcn.2010.29417

DO - 10.3945/ajcn.2010.29417

M3 - Article

VL - 92

SP - 733

EP - 740

JO - The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

JF - The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

SN - 0002-9165

IS - 4

ER -